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Food For Thought

The Global Brain

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Although the idea of a Global Brain may sound like something you’d read about in a 21st century science fiction novel, it is in fact a concept that first emerged in the social and biological sciences in the late 19th century, when an increasing number of evolutionary and social theorists began to realize that the entire human system was, in a sense, “behaving.” As scientists began to identify underlying patterns in global human systems – that appeared to be structured and self-organizing, in the same way as are those of any biological organism - scientists hypothesized that our species could, in fact, be understood as a “superorganism” as opposed to a random collection of individuals, families, groups, cities, or nations.

One of the first things to alert scientists to this possibility was the very nature of human, animal, and plant metabolism itself – which is the mechanism by which individual biological organisms process matter and transform it into energy, allowing us to live, reproduce, and function on a daily basis. The metabolic process is a highly complex one, and it is probably safe to say that no one understands it in its entirety. We do know, however, that metabolism consists of eight primary functions or “functional subsystems,” all of which have been identified and discussed by cyberneticist Francis Heylighen in his 2007 paper on the Global Brain:

• Ingestor - i.e., eating, drinking, inhaling
• Converter - i.e., digestive system, lungs
• Distributor - i.e., circulatory system
• Producer - i.e., stem cells
• Extruder - i.e., urine excretion, defecation, exhaling
• Storage - i.e., fat, bones
• Support - i.e., skeleton
• Motor - i.e., muscles

We also know that within our very own global society, we can find an analogous mechanism that perfectly mirrors the metabolic function of biological organisms, and in which we can identify the following “functional sub-systems:”

• Ingestor - i.e., mining, harvesting, pumping
• Converter - i.e., refineries, processing, plants
• Distributor - i.e., transport networks
• Producer - i.e., factories, builders
• Extruder - i.e., sewers, waste disposal, smokestacks
• Storage - i.e., warehouses, containers
• Support - i.e., buildings, bridges
• Motor - i.e., engines, people, animals

If we take the time to look at the world in this light, it is easy to see that human systems - taken together – can easily look like a giant, planetary superorganism.
But, if this is true, then where is the brain in this superorganism?

Most complex multicellular organisms have some type of nervous system, and many have centralized brains that allow them to process information, to learn from past events and experiences, and to non-randomly predict the future. Do we see evidence of this type of activity in the human superorganism? Do human systems, examined globally, display the ability to process information, to learn from past events and experiences, and to non-randomly predict the future?

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, scientists could not identify a global nervous system. And it is no wonder. During this period in human history, our communication systems were quite primitive, with most of us relying on postal services, physical meetings, and landline telephone systems to interact at even the most basic level. Only toward the mid-20th century did computer scientists, evolutionary scientists, physicists, and a few science fiction writers begin to suspect that a global nervous system was developing or emerging. Some came up with the idea that a "noosphere" could explain the organized, behavioral nature of human systems, that evolution was, in fact, pushing us towards a kind of planetary consciousness. Others saw the possibility that a global world knowledge center consisting of all human thought – was in the process of being created.

But what could create such an entity?

Well – the Internet, of course.

With the development and widespread use of the Internet, scientists could finally identify the emergence of a nervous system. From the very beginning, humans have been quick to adapt to its many uses, to rely on the Internet to store, catalogue, and process vast quantities of information – and most importantly, to facilitate communication and data transmission, breaking down more and more physical and geographical limitations as time went on, and in so doing, changing the very way humans relate to one another on a daily basis. Very few would disagree that the Internet, still in its infancy, has already completely transformed our planet and our species. With the advent of the Internet, there is nothing to prevent humans from forming connections, building social groups, and collaborating with one another, regardless of where we are on the planet.

Thank you Internet.

But is this nervous system comparable to the nervous system of a biological organism? Again, the patterns and functions seem eerily similar. In an animal’s nervous system, the following functions can be identified:

• Sensor i.e., sensory organs
• Decoder i.e., perception
• Channel and net i.e., nerves, neurons
• Associator i.e., synaptic learning
• Memory i.e., neural memory
• Decider i.e., higher brain functions
• Effector i.e., nerves activating muscles

In the global nervous system, the following functions can similarly be identified:

• Sensor i.e., reporters, researchers, etc.
• Decoder i.e., experts, politicians, public opinion, etc.
• Channel and net i.e., communication media
• Associator i.e., scientific discovery, social learning, etc.
• Memory i.e., libraries, schools, collective knowledge
• Decider i.e., government, market, voters, etc.
• Effector i.e., executives

All that said, the question remains: Are we in the process of building a Global Brain?

To answer this question, it would be a good idea to back up a little and define what we mean by Global Brain.

Right now, the idea that a Global Brain may exist in the future is merely a hypothesis, according to which scientists have posited that a higher distributed intelligence may, in fact, be emerging from an otherwise complex network of people, machines, and ideas. According to this hypothesis, a Global Brain would, through our continued collective action and/or consciousness, eventually have the ability to mediate and to regulate all human activity. Now, before we begin comparing the idea of a Global Brain to that of an Orwellian Big Brother, let's remember that the Global Brain is a “distributed” intelligence. Such an entity would not be controlled by any one agent. In fact, the Global Brain's existence would depend exclusively on the behavior and existence of its neurons (i.e., us). Just as your own “global brain” (i.e., you) is produced by the collective behavior of your neural networks, the Global Brain’s behaviour would be dependent on the collective thoughts and wishes of individuals and organizations around the world.

In my opinion, the evolution of a Global Brain is – in the very least - theoretically possible. After all, many technological and system-level trends appear to point towards the emergence of such an entity sometime during this century.

Consider, for example, the following trends:

1. Everyday, humans around the world continue to provide increasing amounts of data to the Internet, including information that we had once considered personal and private.

2. Everyday, humans around the world are spending increasing amounts of time on the Internet.

3. Everyday, humans around the world have increasingly easy and cost-effective access to the Internet.

All of these trends are likely to continue. It is not difficult for most of us to picture a world – in 2030 - when all humans are on the Internet, all the time - sharing, liking, tweeting, hash-tagging, commenting, discussing – generally outsourcing our lives to a medium that has access to all of our personal and collective information. Assuming that these trends will continue, one can easily hypothesize that at some unfixed point in the future, most or perhaps all human interaction will take place there.

Let’s assume, for a moment, that a Global Brain does, in fact, exist – or is in the process of development - and that we are simply the neurons that make up this vast nervous system. Using the analogy of a human brain, we know that a Global Brain could not function if its neurons were not fully connected with it, if its neurons were not engaged in a continuous stream of communication with one another. A Global Brain, after all, could not exist if its neurons were disconnected from it or from one another.

In the last decade, we have seen computers shrink in size and weight, becoming increasingly portable, accessible, and user-friendly. Whether in the form of laptops, tablets, or other mobile devices, we are using computers in more intimate ways. We have come to rely on computers on a daily basis for all kinds of reasons and they, in turn, have become ubiquitous in our lives. In the 1970s, computers could be found only in laboratories, research facilities, and universities. In the 1980s, they invaded the work place. In the 1990s, computers found their way “en masse” into our homes. In the 2000s, they found their way into our pockets in the form of mobile gadgets, portable phones, and listening devices. In this decade, we are already beginning to witness the emergence of "wearable" computers (i.e., Google Glass, Smart Watches). In the 2020s, computers will make our homes, businesses, and transportation grids intelligent, and in the 2030s we will probably begin to allow computers into our own bodies, so that they can interface with our organs, including with our brains.

In this light, it is easy to see that a global nervous system may indeed be coming to life, and that once the Internet is connected to or somehow integrated into our brains, we will have given it the power to mediate everything we do, say, and think, and that we will be able interact with it as seamlessly as we currently do through the medium of spoken and written language.

The Global Brain refers, in short, to the Internet at its full maturity. It will be an intelligent planetary network of people, machines, and ideas – a collective system within which we will probably spend most of our existence. Will it be conscious? Well, WE are conscious. So if all human consciousness on the earth is merged together on one planetary communication medium, my guess is that this will give rise to a meta-consciousness. Evolution, taken to its natural next step, will permit us to create an all-encompassing global consciousness endowed with its own intelligence and its own nervous system, opening doors to innumerable possibilities that could never have existed otherwise.

If you’d like to know more about the Global Brain, come see me at Microryza.com where I am attempting to raise money to fund my research, and where I have included additional information about this very exciting project. I look forward to answering your questions at: https://www.microryza.com/projects/is-the-internet-evolving-into-a-global-brain.

Photo Credit: Istockphoto

Cadell Last is a science writer and evolutionary scientist with a Master’s Degree from the University of Toronto, with experience in the fields of anthropology, biology, cybernetics, and history. He is in the early stages of his doctorate research at the Global Brain Institute in Belgium, working under cyberneticist Francis Heylighen. If you are interested in supporting Cadell’s groundbreaking research, or would like to find out more about it, please visit Microryza.com or contact him directly via Twitter (@cadelllast).

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Koosje Koene

Using colored pencils, pens, watercolors, and a sketchbook, Amsterdam-based visual artist and art instructor Koosje Koene creates lively, expressive, and humorous images, recording the colors and textures of her surrounding world in vivid detail. Objects, places, people, and landscapes that normally recede into the background—a pair of coffee mugs, a plate of brussels sprouts, a deli counter at a local restaurant, even an orange peel—all of these become the subject of Koosje’s affectionate artwork, as she imbues the things we encounter in everyday life with the joyful light of wonder and curiosity. In the following interview, Koosje—who also happens to be co-founder of an innovative new online platform called Sketchbook Skool—talks to us about her life, her inspiration, and her art. Q. Can you tell me about your background? After completing my education in graphic design, I went to art school to study photography. 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If you sit down with a blank piece of paper and a pen in hand and you expect to draw a masterpiece, then the blank paper is indeed very intimidating. If you learn to get rid of those thoughts, and just let go and enjoy the ink flowing onto the paper, the drawing unfolding in front of you, that’s what it really is about. When you enjoy the process, it will show in the results. And if you’re not happy with a drawing, you can always make another one. And of course, when you make art every day, it will become a habit, and you won’t even think about it anymore. With practice, your skills will grow too and you will get more confident. That threshold will start to shrink and maybe even disappear. As an artist, you need to keep developing and learning. When you finish a piece, you will realize that there are always things you could have done differently. So then you take that with you next time. Perfection is something that can be paralyzing. You can learn so much from so-called mistakes—or are they happy accidents?—and also, flaws can add a lot of character and personality in art. So let’s feast on failures! Q. As an artist and as an individual, what are your aspirations for the future? To immensely enjoy the process. To feel satisfied and proud, and challenged. To inspire others. I want to always keep learning and developing. Not just in art, but also in life. I love traveling and exploring to broaden my horizons. And while doing so, I want to share everything I’m learning so I can inspire others to make art. Art has always been there in my life, in some form. And I can’t imagine a world without it. ***** For more information about Koosje’s art, please go to: http://koosjekoene.blogspot.com/ For more information about Sketchbook Skool, please go to: http://www.sketchbookskool.com/ At Sketchbook Skool, Koosje teaches in the BEGINNINGS Kourse which is about drawing in public and playing with colored pencils. 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In the following article, American writer JD Coburn shares the story of Ivan, a transgender man who lived in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century and at the beginning of the twentieth century. Publicly, Ivan was known to the author and to his family as “Great Aunt Ivan,” but according to the author, “he lived his life as a man, a good man, maybe the best man one could know.” To honor his memory and his life, JD has agreed to publish Ivan’s story here. (In an effort to illustrate the profound lack of understanding that existed at the time, the author has chosen to use the female gender pronoun “she” and the female term “Great Aunt.”) ***** To most people, ‘True Grit’ is a movie. They think grit is something that gets caught in your teeth. Back in the day, before the nightfall of the present, grit was the element a fellow possessed that made it impossible for him NOT to ride toward four or five highwaymen, reins between his teeth, a pistol in each hand, and the love of home and family in his heart. They were people of character who gave America its strength and built everything you see around you today. My Great Aunt Ivan was my maternal grandfather’s sister. She shot from the hip of righteousness with barrels a foot long. Ivan was a true super hero. ***** My great aunt had not been christened Ivan. That was not the name with which she had been baptized. She chose the name, Ivan, after a long succession of trials with other names. Women’s names, names of small towns, dogs, proper nouns, adjectives, seasons, colors, weather features—like Sunny, Cloudy, Stormy, etc.—and finally, men’s names. All took their turns as Ivan’s monikers. Rex and Lumber were both strong contenders for permanence, each lasting years, but once she reached the age of eighteen, she pretty much stuck with Ivan. “I’m not all here,” Ivan complained as a child. The family chuckled and agreed, tongue in cheek, and referred to her complaints as her ‘growin’ pains.’ From the age of four to the day she passed, Ivan’s ‘growin’ pains’ never quite produced the growth for which she pained. Ivan tried many jobs. Being from my family, she worked her first job at age four when she was introduced into ‘the show.’ Vaudeville is the family business, and has been for over one hundred and sixty years. My family is theater, in every sense imaginable. In Ivan’s days, every member of the family worked in the show in some capacity. Ivan would come center stage dressed half in knickers and suspenders, sporting a boy’s shirt, one bare foot, and half a cap. Her other half was in a pink tutu and tights, a slipper, and a bow in a curly blonde pony tail. There she would sing a plaintive ditty about being ‘different’ called “They Always Always Pick on Me.” When I was born My Ma and Pa They looked at me and said, “Oh, pshaw!” The doctor said, “It’s a boy, I think” Then Pa went out And got a drink Then Ma said I looked just like Pa Pa said I took after Ma Aunt Jane said I looked like the Sphinx And I’ve been a stepchild ever since. They always always pick on me They never never let me be I’ve been so lonesome, oh so sad It’s been a long time since I’ve been glad I know what I’ll do by and by I’ll eat some worms and then I’ll die And when I’m gone, you wait and see They’ll all be sorry that they picked on me! Ending with a one-legged tap dance to lively exeunt music, off she’d go, stage left. All six of my great-grandfather’s kids did this bit. All six of my grandfather’s kids did this bit. I did this bit when I was four. How do you think I know the words? Ivan didn’t have a lot of options as a woman in the work force. She was, however, fearless and anxious to best the fellow who could not be bested. Ivan was best at lumberjacking. She looked completely alive and at home in her costume of red suspenders and plaid wool shirts, her cuts, and corks. Her stage was the forests of Wisconsin during the previous turn from the nineteenth to the twentieth centuries. Ivan wielded a double bitted axe with aplomb and adroitly handled her end of a buck saw or a peavy. Donning cleats, she could scale a hundred feet of Douglas fir in a matter of seconds, not minutes. She even introduced herself as Doug Fir for a while as she worked in the forests. She loved the animal energy of the wilderness, and put great thought and care into everyone’s safety. The job spoke to both sides of Ivan. The side that really spoke to Ivan was the little freckle-faced boy in her—frog in one pocket and slingshot in the other. With scuffed knees and bruises, she held a rock in one hand and a bouquet of dandelions in the other for her sweetheart, her mom. She never courted, and, well, no fellow ever courted her either. She would readily arm wrestle a fellow but that was about all the physical contact she needed from a man. Ivan pined for no man but herself, resulting in a predictable and omnipresent heartbreak. There is a family story that she once won a bet with a fellow, waging that she could, in fact, pee over a barrel. The ‘how’ of it was sketchy but everyone agreed that she’d done it and that it involved lying down on the ground, making it all the more difficult. If Ivan wore a dress, you could bet that she wore a pair of dungarees under those ruffles—and you’d win. Ivan walked with purpose. She stood tall, and didn’t stand long for those who did not. She didn’t suffer fools. (I’m told I inherited this characteristic from Ivan.) I thought for a long time that I would one day write a play about Ivan. The coincidence of Chekov’s “Uncle Vanya” (Vanya is Russian for Ivan) kept me from doing it. And Patrick Dennis’ story “Auntie Mame” also treads perilously close on many levels to Ivan’s story. So, I decided I’d try telling her story. This was almost impossible to do since everyone who knew her had died. I knew that Ivan was a transgender man, and that Ivan lived at a time when there was little understanding of what it meant to be “different.” I knew that she loved dogs, that she took on men’s and women’s names, that she worked as a railroad conductor, and in logging and farming. Based on these facts, I began to come up with stories about her life, hoping that other people—like me—who are “different” in any number of ways, who don’t quite fit in, might find grace in her stories. That’s what Ivan did. Ivan was a sparkling, imaginative, elegant and terrifying storyteller. She told stories about life—by living out her life. I only wish that I could write the one happy ending for which she yearned—to be who she really was. Who Ivan really was, was delivered in her values and character. She described values as those things in life which mean nothing to anyone else but everything to you. Ivan said character is making sure that the world knows what you stand for and what you will NOT stand for. My youngest son, Nikita, believes in super heroes. I want him to know one, his Great Aunt Ivan. The following stories are for him. ***** Story One: Ivan, The Storyteller A jerk-line skinner might hire out and keep a team of eight to twenty horses or mules but Ivan only had tack for two: Archie and Pearl. Archie was a spanking Bay, while Pearl was a Dapple. Warmbloods, each stood at eighteen hands high (about six feet to the withers). Alone they could pull a day’s wage out of the hay fields. But with the brace, Aunt Ivan never needed to look for work. Work looked for her. It wasn’t just her team or her reputation as a first class skinner that brought joy and lightened the load of the buckers. It was the very look of Ivan, reins in hands, a stub of a pipe clenched tightly between her teeth, her broad-brimmed hat worn at a rakish tilt that made the day go smoother, and that alone was worth her fifty and found. Plus, Ivan didn’t seem to bother much about bunking with the men. Her presence tended to make the younger hands jumpy at first but the older fellows knew her. They knew there was no holding back and NO holding at all with Ivan and woe to the fellow who entertained such thoughts. The sunbaked fields gave every man a ruddy flush to his countenance. Ivan’s cheeks were rosy in winter but by harvest, after a long hot season, the rose blushed to ripe red against the brown leather of her face. Now, Ivan was firmly built, tall but not soft by any stretch. “Big boned” they called her, and she swore she could consume her own weight in prime rib. She could certainly drink to capacity and put many a man under the table when the stakes were right. Some nights, Ivan would sing to the stars with a softness and lightness that brought a tear to the eye. Ivan sang for the men, who day dreamed of their homes and the lustful pursuits that had made up their rough pasts. The farm made its own music. Crickets and frogs sang their night songs, the buzzing of mosquitoes and fireflies making up the string section, while the windmill churned rhythmically in the distance. A stand of poplar along the windward horizon silhouetted the dusk sky, like a lace border to heaven. The musk of fertile soil would stay in the nose of a farm hand for months after harvest. Dirt filled pores never seemed to scrub out, and that which found its way beneath the nails of knotted fingers remained for years after a man’s day was done. Ivan’s contentment was one that came directly from earning her way. A day’s wage for a day’s work was all she craved, after, as a matter of course, Archie and Pearl were well groomed, well fed, and well stabled for the night. Ivan got what she gave with those horses. The only male who ever wormed his way into Ivan’s heart was Archie. Pearl, Ivan surrendered, was her equal—and that earned her respect. Each brush stroke across the broad backs, bottoms, manes and legs of those horses was accompanied with a whisper of the horse’s name. The sweetest sounds those horses ever heard was that of their own names being sung by Ivan. So, when she barked “HO, ARCH” or “WHOA, PEARL” they responded with heads held high, nostrils flaring with pride. Devoted stable mates, they tugged or stopped with a unified might. Ivan’s life was that of core virtues, of goodness prevailed, a life of candor with God Almighty. In her heart of hearts, she struggled with her secrets, but knew that hers was a noble use of life—even if she couldn’t have what her heart desired. Dawn cracked and Archie and Pearl burst forth from the barn, rearing and raring to pull. Three wagons in tow, the buckers got to ride to the North 40. In mid morning, they gulped hot breakfast pie and even hotter coffee. Hocks, beans and cob corn came ‘round by five, then a big chuck back at the bunk by sunset. Great black roasts, carved paper-thin were piled high on sourdough with a gravy so thick it spoke with an accent. Fresh from the kitchen garden, the spuds were steamed and mashed and buttered to fattened perfection. Ice-cold buttermilk dripped and drooled from mustachioed lips to the tune of belching and loosened belt buckles. Gas was passed outside by decree of the bunk. As the night slipped into cool, the boots came off and stocking feet met the brass rail that surrounded a sweet little pot-bellied stove in the center of the bunk house. Out came a secret pint of sippin’ whisky, carefully snuffed cigar remains, a deck of cards, the spots near worn off, and the stories and jokes typical of a bunkhouse. All of which made the air thick with smells, smoke, lies and laughter. Given her misspent youth in Vaudeville, Ivan’s stories elevated the air of the room to the rarified. She had actually been in the dressing rooms of the Burlesque dancers and told of the sights she’d seen in tormenting detail. For effect, she would hesitate on words like, “nipples,” “lips,” and “garter belts,” lingering on the adjectives, “tight,” “round,” and “firm,” and in so doing she sent many a stout fellow to the outhouse, a tightly held collection of French paste cards in hand. Ivan’s exclusive platform of delivery was the other fellow’s imagination. Ivan loved women, and knew innately what these men would like. ***** Story 2: Ivan, The Protector Ivan was a conductor on the Coast Starlight, a rail line that travels along the western edge of America, from the Mexican to the Canadian border. She rode the bone rattling cars with grace and purpose, and was a welcome sight as she meandered through the aisles of the rail cars. She shared a bawdy joke with the carpetbaggers, a warm word of assurance with the mail-order brides, and a penny’s worth of rock candy with the distraught young’uns. She looked smart in her conductor’s cap and blazer, the stripes down the long legs of her trousers meeting her old steel-toed corks (hob-nail boots worn in logging) which she wore for extra traction. On sleeper cars in particular, aisle-passing maneuvers, especially when trying to edge by men in the early twentieth century, could sometimes take on an unwelcome measure of intimacy. Ivan had discovered a few moves that seemed natural on a lurching train but always resulted in a painful lesson for any gent who thought too well of himself. No man ever complained that she’d made the transition ‘rough’ on purpose. Ivan knew well that for men, humiliation meant silence. Ivan had feelings like a woman, but she never felt like a woman. She felt like a man. Civil War veterans on both sides complained that they felt pain in legs that had been amputated and were no longer there. Ivan knew that pain, but it humiliated her in the same way that it humiliated the veterans. She never spoke of her humiliation, not once, to a living soul. Still, everyone seemed to know that she suffered. People admired Ivan for her strength. Ivan had the iron will of the soldier—the ability to set aside her fears and stand up. As happens sometimes, big things break. When a thing as big as a train breaks, there is a lot of damage beyond the train itself. Some of that damage can have a human toll. It’s terrifying when a train derails, but even more so in the moments that follow because there is no way to predict what will happen after that first car turns or tips too hard. The cars and trucks weigh many tons each, their payloads of coal, grain, rock, and crude oil, not to mention mail and passengers, all moving at high speeds adding exponentially to the impact. Through the steam, smoke and flame, through the wreckage and chaos, strode Ivan. Emerging from hell’s fires, surefooted and with assurance, she would find the lost parent or child, reunite them, then head straight back into the fray. The children and dogs were easily distracted with a treat. The adults, particularly the wealthy, felt the entitlement of birth and rank, believing they should be helped first. Ivan’s priorities were—as my grandmother would always tell us, “To help the ones who need it the most.” Protecting those who were smaller and weaker was built into Ivan. She was put together with steel in her convictions, a power plant for a heart, and the impermeable malleability of a cloud. She moved through chaos like a breath of life because she intended to do so. Ivan did those things because she said she could, not because anyone else said she couldn’t. ***** Story 3: What Does It Mean To Be A Man? If you want to learn how to be a man you need only look to my Great Aunt Ivan. Even in the schoolyard, she never picked on the smaller, weaker kids. Ivan was the one who stood up to the bullies and faced them down. In doing so, she earned the respect of both the weak and the strong. That’s what a man is supposed to do. Do men fall short of this ideal? Many do. Aunt Ivan did not. Growing up in farming country, Ivan learned very young that what happens to your neighbor can just as easily happen to you. A bumper crop, ruinous draught, a good well dug, even a small fire, and much more can be the impetus for wealth or ruin. A fire at a neighbor’s barn could be seen burning for miles across the tops of the fat grain and corn, day or night. While others ran away, Ivan rode into the fire. Out of the darkness, Ivan faded into the firelight like a glowing red demon. Roman-riding her team, Archie and Pearl, one foot planted firmly on each of the broad backs of her horses, Ivan’s shrill whistle broke the air. Holding the reins in one hand and their ends in the other, snapping side to side, pulling a water wagon, Ivan looked like some fiery ancient war goddess riding into battle! From atop her horses, she could survey what needed doing first and would direct the relay of buckets. The poor fellow who didn’t move fast enough was tossed aside like stale candy so that Ivan could step in and show him how it was done. By example, the others imitating her, Ivan led her neighbors to victory over disaster. After a barn raisin', a celebration would follow, and Ivan would be pointed to as the hero of the day. “Ah, freeze your teeth and give your tongue a sleigh ride,” cried Ivan, as she would have none of it. When it came to foaling, calving, and whelping, people came from miles around to see Ivan. Puppies were her specialty. She would take the pregnant bitch out to the shed or the barn, curling up with her in the clean hay and softly speaking her name. Petting and rubbing, she would help her through the rough spots of labor and delivery. The morning found Ivan with the new mother happily nursing, and eight to twelve happy, healthy pups napping, nuzzling, and sniffing about. Life was precious to Ivan. No pups drowned on her watch. If there were too many for the mother to feed, Ivan would bundle one or two of them up, zip them up inside her jacket, and take them home. She would nurse the pups with good cream and keep them warm in a box by the stove. Once the pups were strong enough, they’d come along on the wagon with her where they got ample love and attention all the day long. One pup stayed with her for many years. Born with only three legs, “Trip” lived up to her name as a puppy—but like Ivan, she never quit and she never gave up. Ivan understood that dog and often spoke of their time together as “the best ten years of my life.” She too was missing a part, but nothing could ever stop or slow her down. ***** Image Credit: Used with author's permission

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Rivvrs

by Udoka Gabriella Okafor

San Francisco-based independent singer-songwriter Brandon Zahursky, who writes and performs under the moniker “Rivvrs,” is well known for his beautiful, heartfelt single “I Will Follow You” which was recently featured on NBC’s TV series “About A Boy.” Cheeky, introspective, and full of affection, “I Will Follow You” speaks directly to the heart of every person who has ever been in love. Characterized by the artist’s signature raspy whisper, poetic lyricism, and a humorous kind of optimism, Rivvrs’ four-song debut album “Hold On” explodes with color, rhythm, and youthful sincerity — and once again, speaks directly to the heart. In the following exclusive interview, our contributor Udoka Gabriella Okafor talks to Rivvrs about his life, his music, and his debut album—which was released on August 15, 2014. ***** Gabriella: Can you tell me a little bit about yourself—your likes and dislikes? Rivvrs: As a musician, it may not come as much of a surprise, but I love listening to music. I have to listen to an album start to finish. Usually a certain song attracts me and then I get the album and play it on loop for a few weeks. I don't do it as much as I used to, but I'm also a pretty avid reader. When I was a kid, I walked around with a book in my hand, whether I was at the grocery store or at a soccer game. My social life is definitely based around live music, even if I'm not performing. I love going out to see people perform. I love movies. At the end of the day, I look forward to mellowing out and falling asleep to a good movie. I really dislike driving. If I can walk or take a cab—these days, it's Uber—I prefer that. Gabriella: Tell me a little bit about your early life and your favourite childhood memories. Rivvrs: I was born in San Francisco. My dad raised my little brother and I as a single parent and we hopped around the Bay Area of California for most of my life. I graduated from Capuchino High School in San Bruno. I won't get into the details, but my mom wasn't around when I was a kid. It was just my dad, my brother and I. Because of that, my dad worked really odd hours to support us. He was usually gone from the early afternoon until we went to bed. In middle school, my uncle moved in with us to keep an eye on us kids. He's a carpenter and some of my best memories were at job sites he went to. I liked to tag along and watch, or do really simple tasks like digging holes. I don't know why—I just really liked the smell of a house being built. When I was fourteen, I got my first guitar and [started] religiously watching YouTube videos to learn how to play it. Since my dad wasn't around to tell me to do my homework after school, I usually played for hours at a time and did my work at the last minute. Early on in high school, I was a bit of an introvert and only had a handful of really good friends. One of my best friends was someone named Vince and he was my partner in crime. There were a lot of firsts that he and I experienced together, and it definitely helped me get out of my shell. My favourite memory is [of] the trips I used to take to the record store. Being a teenager, I relied on the bus and train to get me around. Every weekend, I used to take a train to Rasputin Music in Mountain View. I would buy ten to fifteen used CDs for a few bucks apiece and listen to them for a few months. I would trade the old ones in and get new ones, and I was able to get a healthy dose of music for practically nothing. A day without headphones was a weird day for me. When I was sixteen, I met a girl named Gina who was a singer. I would play guitar and she would sing. Up to that point, I was very shy with my voice and didn't really write much of my own music. When she heard me sing for the first time, she was nothing but supportive and gave me confidence to sing in front of people. I really wouldn't have had the courage to do it without her help. Other childhood favourite memories… We used to camp a lot with our family and extended family. My dad's best friends from high school are still very much in our lives and we spent a lot of time together growing up. All of our families became one and it made for really awesome get-togethers and trips. I love spending time near the water, jet skiing, swimming, fishing, anything that's outdoors. I spent a lot of time outside as a kid and still do to this day. Gabriella: Who were your role models growing up, both inside and outside of the music industry? Rivvrs: My dad listened almost exclusively to classic rock, and I fell in love with it. He was my biggest role model growing up and still is. When I was thirteen, I wanted to be Angus Young from AC/DC. I bought the electric guitar he was notorious for playing—a Gibson SG —and that's the guitar I learned on. I must have listened to the AC/DC records a hundred times each. Bon Scott, their singer, was my favorite vocalist. I also idolized people like Freddie Mercury, Jim Morrison, Paul Simon, and Tom Petty. Outside of the music industry, I had a couple of teachers who were huge role models to me: Mrs. Rutigliano and Mr. DeLacy. They were both incredible people who encouraged me to be creative and follow my dreams. Gabriella: When did you decide that you wanted to pursue music as a professional career? Rivvrs: Well, I've always wanted to pursue music—as far back as high school. I remember a conversation when I was fifteen, on a bus. My friend and I had been playing music together and we had the whole “What if we could do this for a living when we're older?!” conversation. I took it to heart and remember vowing to myself that I would never stop playing music. I remember having the idea to “pursue” music fully when I was about eighteen. I read a book called “The Celestine Prophecy” and it totally shifted my thinking and gave me this excitement to get out and experience the world. Gabriella: The first time I heard your music was on the television show “About A Boy.” How did your song come to be featured on the show and how awesome was it to hear your music on the show, knowing that millions of people were hearing it as well? Rivvrs: That was all my manager's doing. I have tremendous faith in our relationship, and his ability to kick total ass. He's a really great guy. It was very random. We were talking on the phone and he goes, "Guess what?!" and I had a hard time grasping what the placement really was until things became more official. It was very surreal to me, and I just feel incredibly blessed. Gabriella: Okay, I have to ask, what inspired the name Rivvrs? Rivvrs: Ha-ha. It's not a very interesting story. I used to go by the moniker “River Shiver.” It was kind of a band, kind of my solo project. It always felt awkward to call myself “River Shiver” on stage. I opened a show for a larger artist last year and mentioned “River Shiver” before I performed. The whole night, people called me “River,” assuming that was my name. It didn't feel as weird as I expected. In February when I got the “About a Boy” placement, my manager, Tony, told me I had to decide on a name, because it would be mentioned in the show. “Rivvrs” came up as an idea pretty naturally and my manager threw out the idea of a double “v.” For copyright purposes—and maybe some originality—we decided on the spelling R-I-V-V-R-S. It feels comfortable, and keeps the moniker pretty arbitrary. It doesn't really have any hidden meaning, otherwise. Gabriella: I know that you are a singer-songwriter, so did you write or co-write all of the songs on your debut album “Hold On?” Rivvrs: I write most of my songs on my own, but for this four-song EP, all the songs were co-written. I had all four songs started at home and brought them down to LA and sat with different writers/producers who helped me fill in the gaps. Gabriella: Can you describe your song writing process? Rivvrs: There's not really a set process. I actually really dislike the idea of sitting down to write intentionally. I feel like it's kind of forced if you do it that way. Usually it starts with a concept and an acoustic guitar. Once I know what I'm writing about, I have every lyric tie back to that same theme. For “I Will Follow You,” the first line I had was “You make it all go away” which ended up being used in the bridge. From that one line, I based the whole song around someone who makes everything bad go away. Sometimes I'll just randomly get a lyric or melody stuck in my head and I instantly record it onto my phone. After a few weeks, I go back and listen to everything and usually end up with little sparks that become full songs. Other times I can write a song in one sitting in a matter of minutes. I never know how the moment will strike. Overall, I fancy myself a strong lyricist above all. I won't be winning any awards for my guitar playing. Gabriella: Can you describe the production process that your album underwent, from draft to finished product? Rivvrs: It was really laid back! There was no set release date and no immediate plan to release “an album.” The lack of pressure was very helpful. I started writing songs and as they started to take shape, I began to record them. Each song began in my living room and ended in a music studio. I knew I wanted to do something new and I went into my writing sessions with a fresh outlook and no limit on what I could [do]. Next thing I knew, I had a bunch of songs finished. Once I finished “I Will Follow You” I set out to release a set of songs that were happy and represented hope and optimism. I used to write a lot of sober stuff, and having some upbeat material really inspired me to keep things positive and happy. I chose to release a small batch of songs to start, even though there are plenty more to be released. Consider it a teaser for what's to come. More music is coming soon!” Gabriella: Before your album was released, you published an official list of songs that were to appear on the album. One of the songs “Terrified” never made it to the album. Will we ever get to hear that song? Rivvrs: Ah, you really must have been watching closely! I regretted posting that after I released the album. “Terrified” will be on the next release. I wrote and recorded that song about two years ago and it ultimately didn't vibe well with the other four, so we cut it from the final EP. It was nothing more than a creative decision. It didn't feel right. The song is done, and will definitely be out someday. I just can't say when. I definitely love the song, though. Gabriella: How difficult and rewarding was it for you to release your first album? And what do you think are the pros and cons of being a new musician in the industry? Rivvrs: “Hold On” is technically my first album, though I have released previous material as “Brandon Zahursky” and “River Shiver.” Knowing this is the first set of songs that I am truly proud of feels like a tremendous personal accomplishment. It wasn't really difficult. It just took a lot of time to progress. I'm just grateful that people like the songs. I think as a newbie to the music industry, it's easy to be overwhelmed by what you haven't done yet. I try not to focus on that as much as [to] be grateful for the opportunities I've had. Since “Rivvrs” is a whole new thing to me, a pro is that I have this feeling of being reborn. All the old albums, the old songs—good and bad—the trials, the errors, the regrets, they're all gone because I started over. It feels amazing! It's definitely gone into the feeling of the record. Gabriella: Are you currently working on any new songs or musical projects? Rivvrs: Always! Aside from the other batch of songs that are already recorded, I have about fifteen other songs either finished or half written. I'm going to wait a bit before releasing another album, but the songs are done! Gabriella: Can you tell prospective fans why they should pick up your album? Rivvrs: I wouldn't know. I'd say that's for someone else to say. I like to think that these songs will all have one underlying tone—optimism and hope. Whether or not that separates me, I'm not sure. I just think there's so much negativity in a lot of music, and my goal is to focus on the happy stuff. Gabriella: What advice do you have for young and aspiring artists out there, or to young people in general? Rivvrs: Keep your eyes and ears closed to the world—to an extent. No one can tell you who you are. Don't be afraid to be different, or to pursue a career that isn't traditional. Also, definitely don't choose a career based on money. If you have a passion in your heart, follow that passion with every ounce of your soul and you will find happiness. For more information about Rivvrs, please go to his website: http://www.rivvrs.com/ To purchase Rivvrs’ debut album “Hold On,” please go to: http://goo.gl/B5ImzK ***** Image Credit: Steven Bailey Cover Image Credit: Steven Bailey Featured Track: “I Will Follow You” Music and lyrics copyrighted to Rivvrs/ Brandon Zahursky

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Morgan Rhodes

by Udoka Gabriella Okafor

Canadian author Morgan Rhodes is the creative and literary mind behind the New York Times bestselling high fantasy series which follows the lives of four teenagers—Princess Cleo, Prince Magnus, Princess Lucia, and the rebellious Jonas—whose lives and fate are bound by political realities in the fictional kingdom of Mytica. Filled with magic, political intrigue, romance, and rebellion, the young adult series addresses complex issues including loss, betrayal, and sacrifice. Having read the first two books in the series, I can say that the “Falling Kingdoms” books are thrilling to read, and that they will compel you to stay up way past your bedtime. Morgan, who also writes paranormal novels under the pen name Michelle Rowen, will be releasing the highly anticipated third book of her series, entitled “Gathering Darkness” in December 2014, as well as a spinoff novel “A Book Of Spirits And Thieves” in the summer of 2015. She is currently working on Book Four. In the following interview, Morgan talks to us about the characters in “Falling Kingdoms,” the inspiration behind her writing, and her creative process, and tells us why she became a writer of high fantasy. ***** Q. When did you realize that you wanted to be a writer? I grew up in southern Ontario, in a smallish town west of Toronto. I knew I wanted to be a writer as a teen when I got really good marks in creative writing, but after a year of English Lit at university, I decided I needed a more dependable profession, so I went to college for Graphic Design, which was my career for over a decade while I worked on my writing. Q. Who were your role models when you were growing up, both within and outside of the writing world, and what inspired you to become a writer? I can’t recall any specific role models. I read lots of books, but I didn’t idolize authors as a kid. As far as I can recall, the moment that made me want to become a writer was the movie “Romancing the Stone”… and not because Kathleen Turner hooked up with Michael Douglas. I just loved the idea of writing books for a living, as portrayed in the movie—which isn’t a super accurate representation, but actually not too-o-o far from the truth. I also tended to rewrite, in my mind, the endings to movies that disappointed me, and did some very early fan fiction to a book series I read as a pre-teen. All signs pointed to WRITER. Q. I really enjoyed reading “Falling Kingdoms” and “Rebel Spring,” and I cannot wait for the third book to come out this December, and for the spinoff series that will be coming out next summer. What inspired the storyline for this book series? Thank you so much! After writing two dozen books as Michelle Rowen, which typically followed a single viewpoint—the heroine’s—and mostly were written in first person POV, I wanted to take on a project that had a bigger canvas to play with. I wanted to get into the heads of both villains and heroes, and I wanted to write about princes and princesses and magic. High fantasy definitely fit the bill. As a kid, I’d been obsessed with movies like “The Princess Bride,” “Legend,” “Willow,” and other fantasies of the eighties, and more recently I’d begun to watch the grittier “Game of Thrones” on HBO, which I adore. “Falling Kingdoms” was the perfect blend of everything I’d seen and loved, and the story and characters evolved from there. Q. My favorite character in “Falling Kingdoms” is Cleo. I absolutely love her and I relate to her a lot, in so many respects and on so many levels. I know that it’s excruciatingly unfair to ask you who your favorite character is—in your own book—but could you tell me which character you relate to the most? Good question! I’d say there’s a little bit of me in every character. I think I can be stubborn like Cleo, both trusting and self-doubting like Lucia, I can definitely hold a grudge like Jonas, and Magnus… Hmm… I don’t have much in common with him, but he happens to be my favorite character to write. Q. It was very difficult for me to read about Cleo’s life falling apart in the “Falling Kingdom” books. What was the hardest scene for you to write in this series? Cleo’s losses were difficult to write, but necessary. Every one of them—especially, arguably, the first one—helped to turn her into the person she was meant to become. The hardest scene for me was probably the battle scene near the end of Book One. I’d never written anything like that before and my first attempt was way too removed, like a camera on a crane pulled far back from the action. In my second attempt, I brought things down to a much more personal character level, since character to me is the most important thing in writing, and really seeing things first hand, and focusing, not on the entire battle, but the moment-to-moment horror of being in a situation like that seemed to work best. But, it didn’t make it any easier to write! Q. Can you tell us what we can expect from “Gathering Darkness?” Plenty! I really want to avoid spoilers, but I’ll say that “Gathering Darkness” picks up almost immediately after the end of “Rebel Spring.” There is plenty of intrigue with the addition of Prince Ashur’s sister, Amara, to the cast and we learn more about the empire of Kraeshia—are they friend or foe? There are some big moments in “Gathering Darkness” that will define the Big Four characters—Cleo, Lucia, Magnus, and Jonas—going forward. And that’s really all I can say! Q. What do you think prospective readers, who are unfamiliar with “Falling Kingdoms,” would enjoy most about your series? I think what sets “Falling Kingdoms” apart from other YA series is that it’s told from multiple viewpoints. I have four main characters and several secondary characters. Some readers have said that they were originally intimidated by my character list, but as they began reading, they found that everything fell nicely into place and they weren’t confused at all. This is very important to me! I know I have a large cast, so I try to keep my “camera” focused where it needs to be. I also feel that my writing style is easy to get into. I’m a character writer, so my first priorities are the interactions and conflict between my characters. It’s got a medieval feel, but I am not a by-the-books historical writer—so this is not a history lesson with lots and lots of description. It’s a fantasy! The magic, the court intrigue, the backstabbing (sometimes literally), the war, the romance, the friendships and family issues... This is the stuff I love to write, and I hope that comes across on the page. Another reader told me that they’d never read high fantasy before because they didn’t think they’d like it, but they tried my book and it’s led them to try other fantasy books. I’ll definitely take that as a compliment! Q. Can you tell us what we can expect from “A Book Of Spirits And Thieves,” the spinoff to the “Falling Kingdoms” series? I’ve been spending a lot of time with this book in first draft and edits, and I can tell you it’s unlike any book I’ve ever written or read before. It brings the best of both worlds—literally—in my writing, and I get to blend contemporary and high fantasy. Like “Falling Kingdoms,” it’s got several points of view—but only three in Book One—that create a tapestry of story and character agendas that begin to weave together in unexpected ways. Two of the characters live in modern day Toronto where there is a secret society fixated on a dangerous new magic that’s been discovered, but the third character lives in Mytica at the “time of the goddesses,” which is a thousand years before the events in “Falling Kingdoms.” There will be lots of Easter eggs for readers of the original series, especially when it comes to the mythology and history hinted at in the “Falling Kingdom” books, but the two series will stand apart from each other without any confusing overlap. Q. Apart from the “Falling Kingdoms” series and its spinoff, do you have any other book ideas that you are currently exploring? My muse is never quiet. She likes to whisper shiny new ideas to me all the time. Currently, with more “Falling Kingdoms” books in the works, and the “A Book Of Spirits And Thieves” trilogy taking up my time, I can’t delve too far into these distracting ideas. There is a book I need to finish and self publish under my other pen name that readers have been waiting for a very long time, which I try to work on in my spare moments. Otherwise, there is nothing else officially planned. Q. I actually just discovered that you write under the name Michelle Rowen. I definitely have to check out some of the books you have written under that name. What made you decide to write under a pen name? Yes, I am a writer of many names. Well, two, presently. The main reason for the pen name is that the feel of my Rhodes books and my Rowen books are very different. Rowen writes very quirky and romancey, while Rhodes writes multi-POV high fantasy—two genres that don’t have a great deal of reader crossover. It felt different enough that two names seemed like the best way to go to avoid confusion and specific expectations. Q. I know that this is probably the most difficult question ever, but who is your favorite author and what is your favorite book of all time? It is a difficult question! I have a lot of favorite authors, but I have to say J.K. Rowling would top them all, and “Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban” was my favorite of that series. Harry Potter is a classic that will last the test of time. Q. Can you tell me a little bit about your writing process? How do your ideas transform into drafts, and then into the final product? I am an outliner. I like to have my plot set before I start writing—kind of like having a map when you’re going on a long road trip. For “Falling Kingdoms,” each chapter is outlined, which helps since each chapter is from a specific character’s POV. The great thing about writing this series is that the characters are all very real in my head, so if I come to a scene that doesn’t work as well as it did in the outline, I will (to a point) allow myself to be taken in a different direction. If it works, it can—and has!—changed the direction of a character’s journey. For example, there’s a new character introduced in “Gathering Darkness” who didn’t behave anything like he was supposed to, according to the outline. He was also supposed to get killed. However, he strongly disagreed, and now he’s a viewpoint character in Book Four, which I’m writing now! Q. Will you continue writing young adult novels, or would you like to try other genres? I have written for both adults and young adults and enjoy each. I don’t find a huge difference in my writing process when it comes to either age group. One thing my books do have in common is that they are all fantasy novels. The question might be: Do I see myself writing something that isn’t fantasy? I’d like to try it someday, but my ideas tend [toward] the fantastical. So far, I’ve been just fine with that! Q. What advice do you have for aspiring writers out there, like myself? My advice would be to enjoy the process of writing itself. So many people get tangled up in the idea of being published and having an online presence and fans and all sorts of other things… that they forget that it’s all about the journey. Writing is hard work, so be sure that you love your idea and your characters, and that you’re telling the story that you want to tell—no matter what it is. Make it your own and put your heart and soul into it without worrying about what the future will bring. That’s when the magic happens! ***** Image Credit: Shanon Fujioka

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Aaron Schwartz

Fascinating. Thanks, The People Project.

7 days ago

Eduardo Ribeiro Alves

I like (very much!)

7 days ago

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